PLASMA ANTENNA SEMINAR REPORT PDF
It the seminar report for ECE students "PLASMA ANTENNA". Explore Plasma Antennas with Free Download of Seminar Report and PPT in PDF and DOC Format. Also Explore the Seminar Topics Paper. Plasma Antenna Seminar Report. Chapter 1. 1. INTRODUCTION. On earth we live upon an island of "ordinary" matter. The different states of.
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Technology has advanced to provide unique antenna designs for applications ranging from general broadcast of radio frequency signals for public use to complex weapon systems. In its most common form, an antenna represents a conducting metal surface that is sized to emit radiation at one or more selected frequencies. Antennas must be efficient so the maximum amount of signal strength is expended in the propagated wave and not wasted in antenna reflection. Plasma antenna technology employs ionized gas enclosed in a tube or other enclosure as the conducting element of an antenna. This is a fundamental change from traditional antenna design that generally employs solid metal wires as the conducting element.
The metal whips that may be considered for a plasma replacement are anywhere from a few centimetres to several metres long. There are many potential advantages of plasma antennas, and DSTO and ANU are now investigating the commercialization of the technology. Plasma antenna technology offers the possibility of building completely novel antenna arrays, as well as radiation pattern control and lobe steering mechanisms that have not been possible before. To date, the research has produced many novel antennas using standard fluorescent tubes and these have been characterized and compare favourably with their metal equivalents.
For example, a MHz communications link was demonstrated using plasma antennas for both base and mobile stations. Current research is working towards a robust plasma antenna for field demonstration to Defence Force personnel.
Download your Full Reports for Plasma Antenna. Latest Seminar Topics for Engineering Students. Plasma Antenna. Are you interested in any one of this Seminar, Project Topics.
Market applications of plasma technology Plasma antennas offer distinct advantages and can compete with most metal antenna applications. Potential military applications include: Unmanned air vehicle sensor antennas. IFF "identification friend or foe" land-based vehicle antennas. Stealth aircraft antenna replacements. Broad band jamming equipment including for spread-spectrum emitters. ECM electronic counter-measure antennas. Phased array element replacements.
Plasma antenna technology has commercial applications in telemetry, broad-band communications, ground penetrating radar, navigation, weather radar, wind shear detection and collision avoidance, high-speed data for example Internet communication spread spectrum communication, and cellular radiation protection. No antenna ringing provides an improved signal to noise ratio and reduces multipath signal distortion.
Changes in the ion density can result in instantaneous changes in bandwidth over wide dynamic ranges. After the gas is ionized, the plasma antenna has virtually no noise floor. While in operation, a plasma antenna with a low ionization level can be decoupled from an adjacent high-frequency transmitter.
A circular scan can be performed electronically with no moving parts at a higher speed than traditional mechanical antenna structures. It has been mathematically illustrated that by selecting the gases and changing ion density that the electrical aperture or apparent footprint of a plasma antenna can be made to perform on par with a metal counterpart having a larger physical size.
Our plasma antenna can transmit and receive from the same aperture provided the frequencies are widely separated. Plasma resonance, impedance and electron charge density are all dynamically reconfigurable. Ionized gas antenna elements can be constructed and configured into an array that is dynamically reconfigurable for frequency, beamwidth, power,gain, polarization and directionality - on the fly.
Duplexer is connected 5cm above from the capacitive coupler because 5cm is the calculated minimum distance where measurements are not 4 affected by EM radiation by capacitive coupler. This plasma column acts as antenna due to surface wave induced current. Th experiment is done for showing that plasma column act as antenna.
Chapter 3 3. Plasma column is also formed with different gases such as air. Duplexer is the combination of Rx filter of insertion loss 0. The discharge is initiated by a single capacitive coupler of length 3.
Plasma Antenna Report
This signal is passed in frequency multiplier by 4. This 46 MHz signal send to Mixer. From plasma antenna. Lower oscillator LO is Mixer is consists of Lower oscillator LO which is Audio filter will block 6 KHz and allow — Hz to go to audio amplifier and amplified signal send to Loudspeaker. Therefore carrier frequency is 49 MHz is amplified and fed Tx filters of Duplexer.
Lower oscillator gives Potential military applications include: IFF "identification friend or foe" land-based vehicle antennas.
Chapter 4 4. The plasma antenna's advantages over conventional metal elements are most obvious in military applications where stealth and electronic warfare are primary concerns. ECM electronic counter-measure antennas. Other important military factors are weight. Plasma antenna technology has commercial applications in telemetry.
Broad band jamming equipment including for spread-spectrum emitters. Unmanned air vehicle sensor antennas. Phased array element replacements. Stealth aircraft antenna replacements. Plasma density and electron temperature are typically measured as 5. The plasma column of different gases is characterized by using standard Langmuir probe of length 5mm and radius 0.
It is measured by changing the position of the probe from one end to the other. The probe is inserted from a end of the glass tube.
Chapter 5 5. The measured value of the density is computed from measured ion saturation current. By evaluating the slope of the I-V characteristics. The plasma density and temperature of all gases such as oxygen. The plasma is formed by rf field 5 MHz to 32 MHz at the capacitive coupler. The characterization of surface wave in our system is given below.
The plasma column of length of 35 cm is formed by surface wave discharge. This surface wave is driven by 5 to 32 MHz frequency and to watts input power by rf generator.
Plasma density and electron temperature is measured. Hence the column is called the surface wave driven plasma column. The plasma density decreases away from the RF exciter. Surface wave excites at the interface of plasma and glass tube. There is no external magnetic field.
The length of plasma column also depends on working pressure. The length of plasma column depends on input power used to drive the surface wave. Fig 4 shows that the length of plasma column 0 cm to 35 cm increases with input power 0 to 40 watt. It deposits wave power to the plasma to form a 35 cm long plasma column.
The above experimental results show that axisymmetric electromagnetic surface wave is propagating along the interface of plasma and glass tube. This indicates damping or attenuation of the wave inside the dielectric.
This surface wave driven plasma column acts as an antenna due to associated surface current with surface wave. Surface current is distributed on the interface of plasma and glass tube. This surface current which is generated by 5 MHz driven frequency that generates electromagnetic field with several harmonics which are shown in Fig. As fig. The axial current distribution on the surface of plasma column is shown in Fig.
There are 20 harmonics on the surface of plasma antenna having higher power than background power level dBm but 60 cm away from the antenna.
As seen clearly. For our largest effective antenna length 35 cm. These different structures in plasma column are transformed from a stable uniform inhomogeneous steady state plasma column to unstable nonuniform inhomogeneous state. The Rayleigh criterion is usually taken as minimum distance from the AUT to the far field where pattern measurements should be made. Both these patterns are also measured in similar way for SS and copper metallic antenna of similar dimensions as the plasma antennae.
It is usually taken to be greater then. Patterns are similar for the three antennae. By changing external operating parameters such as working pressure.
The azimuthal pattern Fig. These states are visibly different and are shown in photographs Fig. The elevation pattern Fig. This plasma antenna will act as a monopole wire antenna. These different formations in the plasma are visible at different pressures or power.
Now each cylindrical striation forms a short length plasma column having associated surface current so each cylindrical plasma element of plasma column acts as a short antenna. The axial current distribution on the antenna elements is shown in Fig.
At critical value which is the combination of input power and working pressure Fig. The separation between striations will be vanished at lower and higher value then the critical value. These segments or elements of plasma antenna are called antenna elements.
This structure of plasma antenna acts as a planner array antenna. The length of antenna elements decreases along the antenna axis Fig. Some other structures Helical and Spiral are also found in our experiment. These structures of plasma act as antenna.
The length of first antenna element varies with driven frequency. The number of elements vary from six to ten by operating at 5MHz. Two experiments. Qualitative observations have been confirmed that the plasma antenna can be used for transmitting and receiving audio signals or TV video information. This FM channel could be received in the absence of plasma column even though rf generator is kept ON. The noise level is reduced from The communication range increases with different structures.
The noise level is measured with different structures of plasma antenna. In comparison the communication range with a similar metallic telescope antenna is measured as 50 meters. I Jamming capabilities of EM waves of this antenna has been qualitatively tested with standard FM radio receivers at But the effective range is measured as cm away from plasma antenna when plasma is formed.
Different type of antenna structures is formed in a single system by changing the external parameters. All these structures of plasma act as antenna. The communication range of our monopole plasma antenna is measured to be 45 meters.
This experiment is performed by all structures of plasma antenna. Plasma antenna is used for communication. II The audio noise level is measured on the loudspeaker output terminal.
Picture of Plasma antenna on the Signet receiver. The schematic experimental set up for this purpose is shown in Figure The measurement. The traditional antennas operate at lower frequencies whereas plasma antennasoperate at very high frequencies. Plasma antenna have no ringing effect associated with them whereas traditional antennashave this effect associated with them.
Features of Plasma Antenna: Higher power: Plasmas have a much wider rangeof power capability than metals. Enhanced bandwidth: The theoretical calculations on the controlled variation of plasma density in space and time suggest that greater bandwidth of the plasma antenna can be achieved than the corresponding metal antenna of the same geometry.
This enhanced bandwidthcan improvediscrimination. Higher efficiency and gain-Radiation efficiency in the plasma antenna is higher dueto lower Ohmic losses in the plasma. Lower noise - The plasma antenna has a lower collision rate among its charge carriers than a metal antenna and calculations show that this means less noise.
Perfect reflector: Hence there exist the possibilities of a wide range of lightweight plasmareflector antennas. Advantages of plasma antennas: An important advantage of plasma antenna over a conventional antenna is that the former is much lighter. These high-performance electronically- steerable antennasare extremely lightweight and compact.
Free from mechanical parts, these maintenance-free plasma antennas are ideally suited for a widerangeof wireless communications.
Plasma antennas are invisible to radar. When the plasma antenna is not turned on, radar will find it difficult to detect the antenna. Even if the plasma antenna is turned on, it is invisible to signals above the plasma frequency. This makes it hard for the plasma antenna signals to be intercepted or detected by anyone other than the intended recipient. Clearly, this particular aspect of the plasma antenna makes it ideal for use by the military to transmit and receive secret instructionsand information.
Plasma elements can be energised and de-energised in seconds, which preventssignal degradation. The plasma antenna is dynamically reconfigurable, which means that the handlers of the antenna can freely change the frequency, gain, polarization, power, directionality and beamwidth of the signal. The implications of this advantage is that instead of needing multiple normal antennas, we can just use a single plasmaantenna, reducingcost and savingspace.
The plasma antenna is capable of transmitting signals at an extremely fast speed. In the plasma semiconductor antenna, by selectively activating certain diodes, the handler is able to focus the electromagnetic waves produced into a beam, which travelsfaster than a wave. When a particular plasma element is not energised, its radiation does not affect nearby elements. Plasma antenna can focus high-frequency radio waves that would dissipate quickly if beamed by conventionalarrays.
The plasma antenna allows for extremely short pulses, unlike a normal metal antenna. This wastes energy and causes unwanted electromagnetic waves to be produced. With the plasma antenna, ringing is totally eliminated. The semi-conductor version of the plasma antenna is limited to high frequencies, which makes certain applications difficult. For example, Wi-Gig routersoperating at 60Ghz cannotpenetrate walls. The ionizer increases power consumption.
More energy is required to ionize the gases or to make the silicon chips release electrons. Therefore, plasmaantennasactually use morepower than normalantennas. Plasma volumes must be stable and repeatable. With silicon chips, it is reasonable to say that the amount of electrons released by the silicon when heated or charged will vary from time to time. Thus it is imperative that the volume of plasma generated each time should be the same.
The amount of plasma existing during a transmission or reception should also be the stable and not fluctuate. Only then will the electromagnetic waves transmitted be stable. The plasma antenna has high potential to be used in the military sector, as it is hard to be detected by radar. This is good for the military to send and receive top secret documentsor instructions. As signals radiated by a plasma antenna is hard to intercept and therefore hard to be blocked, the plasma antenna is said to be resistant to electronic warfare, a strategy commonly employed by enemy countries.
The plasma antenna can be used in radio and television broadcasting. The signals emitted by the plasma antenna tend to be stronger than the signals emitted by the normal metal antenna, thus causing the radio waves to last longer without damping and being extinguished. The consequence of this implication is that radio broadcasting companies no longer need to build so many relay stations and towersto relay the signal to further areas. Another market application for the plasma antenna is to be installed on ships and submarines.
Submarines require stealth to complete the mission of its crew, and so having a plasma antenna would be of great benefit. For fishing ships that require echolocation to locate the position of fish in deep sea, the plasmaantennawill also be advantageous.
One very relevant application of the plasma antenna is in wireless Internet, like Wi-Gig. Wi-Gig provides faster Internet connection to users than is provided by Wi-Fi.
A faster Internet connection means that users will be more productive and save time. The economy of the country can be improved as more work can be done in a shorter time. Activities like downloading podcasts, movies and music at fast speeds can be done even using wireless Internet connection. This is clearly an advantage for mobile users. Another application of the plasma antenna is its role in improving public safety networks.
It is also possible that plasma antennas can be used in space communication. Plasma antennas which prove to be lighter than normal antennas can serve as communication devices on jet planes, commercial planes, and even space shuttles.
For example, scientists and researchers working at the NASA Glenn Research Centre have filed and received a patent for a slotted antennawaveguideplasmasource.
Future Scope: Growing need for speed of communication network along with data handling capacity are the major forces helping to explore new vistas of transmission and reception. With the wireless generations moving from 2G to 3G, 4G, 5G and so on, the real benefit of upgrading the Wi-Fi networks is to get them to run faster. Wi-Fi usually can manage 54 megabits of data per second. The fancied Wi-Fig a graphical user interface for configuring wirless connection would handle up to 7 gigabits per second.
This would mean downloading a TV show in a matter of seconds. The advances in plasma antenna technology are expected to play a great role in the desired speed and capacity-handling capabilities of communication networks. In conclusion, the plasma antenna works according to the same principles and physics laws as the normal antenna, with plasma replacing the metal conductors of the normal antenna.
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