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VMWARE VSPHERE 5 BUILDING A VIRTUAL DATACENTER PDF

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Table of Contents. Physical Topology of the VMware Infrastructure Data Center . users to create a virtual data center that is centrally managed Page 5. Free Book Excerpt: VMware vSphere 5 Building a Virtual Datacenter. Jill Liles posted October 25, 0 Comments. Our friends at VMware Press have provided another free chapter excerpt from their new book, Download the PDF. 5 Configuring Virtual Machine Hardware in the vSphere Web Client 80 .. You create and deploy virtual machines into your datacenter in a.


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VMware vSphere 5® Building a Virtual Datacenter(VMware Press).pdf - Ebook download as PDF File .pdf), Text File .txt) or read book online. Service Definition – Virtual Data Center Service. ICbase/PDF/vsphere- dutytowarn.info Remote Logging. Page 5 After being virtualized in a vSphere virtual machine, the operating . A typical VMware vSphere datacenter consists of basic physical building blocks.

View Larger Image. Register your product to gain access to bonus material or receive a coupon. This eBook includes the following formats, accessible from your Account page after purchase:. EPUB The open industry format known for its reflowable content and usability on supported mobile devices. This eBook requires no passwords or activation to read.

This eBook requires no passwords or activation to read. We customize your eBook by discreetly watermarking it with your name, making it uniquely yours. Every year, datacenter managers must deliver more services faster, with greater flexibility. They must efficiently handle soaring amounts of data, and unprecedented levels of complexity. And they must do all this with lower budgets and fewer resources. Building a Virtual Datacenter brings together all the practical knowledge you need to evaluate, plan, implement, and manage vSphere 5 in your datacenter environment.

They share practical insights into budgeting, scheduling, and planning; choosing the right architecture; and integrating vSphere with existing datacenter elements, including servers, storage, clusters, network infrastructure, and business continuity plans. Storage in vSphere 5. Microsoft Cluster Service in a vSphere 5 Environment Download the errata.

Get unlimited day access to over 30, books about UX design, leadership, project management, teams, agile development, analytics, core programming, and so much more. Doing IT Right. All rights reserved. They must have the ability to train themselves and the motivation required to change their traditional methods.

Such a change must be supported using training, information found online, and webinars. It can be useful to call upon service providers to share their knowledge during some project phases.

This is an opportunity to rethink the work processes and procedures in place. The management team must also be sensitized. Management must be aware of the changes pertaining to the organization and work processes as well as the investment required for the project to succeed. With this support, everyone—at every level of the organization—should be aware of the issues and in-depth changes involved and of the benefits the company will reap. Server Virtualization Server virtualization is anabstraction layer that masks the physical resources of hardware equipment to provide a system with resources that differ from what they actually are.

By its very Page 22 of nature, hardware has limited resources. Server virtualization removes these constraints, opening up a world of possibilities. As a concept, server virtualization is nothing new; IBM invented it for its large mainframe systems at the end of the s.

For the longest time, it seemed the technique could not be adapted to x86 environments; VMware, however, succeeded in As shown in Figure 1. Figure 1. Without virtualization, only one operating system can run on a physical machine, whereas virtualization allows the simultaneous use of several operating systems on a machine.

The hypervisor makes an operating system independent from the hardware on which it has been installed, which opens up many possibilities for the consolidation of various server-based services on a single machine.

Server Virtualization Adoption Factors The following sections examine the factors you should consider when adopting server virtualization in your IT environment. Yet datacenters are reaching their limits in terms of floor space, energy, and cooling. This waste stems from the fact that companies have invested heavily in x86 servers to run a single application.

This has led to a proliferation of physical servers and, given their actual use, to astronomical operation costs. Note Overhead costs, such as management, administration, and power-consumption costs, become astronomical when compared to the cost of acquiring servers and can represent up to four times the initial cost of a server. Page 23 of The high cost of maintaining the operational conditions of the server infrastructure wastes corporate funds and creates an operational inefficiency, hindering both innovation and the ability to manage new projects.

Opposing this waste, executives are putting pressure on IT managers, asking that they guarantee a certain level of service while managing an increasing volume of requests using IT budgets that remain the same—or are even reduced—each year. Technology in the Ser vice of Vir tualization Server technology has greatly evolved in the past few years, with multicore and bit processors and a significant amount of memory management.

Today it is hard to justify installing a single operating system on a server that can accommodate several dozen. Virtualization technology makes the best use of multicore processors, and reaching high levels of consolidation is now possible. Servers are currently10 to 12 times as powerful—in terms of performance—than they were just four years ago.

Beyond a few specific configurations, strategic applications such as SAP or Oracle work quite well in a virtualized x86 environment. Many functional capabilities have been integrated into the hardware to support native virtualization: As you can see with these few examples, hardware and software companies have begun to develop their products to have a complete integration with and to exploit the full potential of virtualization technology. Specifications for a Virtualized Environment After considering the adoption factors for virtualizing your environment, you should familiarize yourself with the basic specifications for that environment.

Before virtualization, a distributed model using many small-scale physical servers was used. With virtualization, the model becomes centralized, consolidated around a single site. Storage becomes the cornerstone, and to host virtual machines, it must offer high performance and provide solutions to secure data. Networks take on a vital role because once cloud computing becomes the chosen model, companies are completely dependent on network and Internet connectivity.

This evolution is forcing businesses to redefine their current infrastructures. Vir tual Machines In a virtual environment, the administrator manages virtual machines VMs. A VM Page 24 of encompasses the entire content of a physical server: With regard to infrastructure, a VM is in every way identical to a physical server; application porting is not necessary.

Administrators can fine-tune the size of VMs very precisely. This configuration granularity allows them to provide VMs with the resources they need.

VMs are completelyisolated from one another operating system, registry, applications, and data. If one VM is infected by a virus or if its operating system crashes, the other VMs are in no danger. To this day, this barrier between VMs has never been broken. This is calledencapsulation. Encapsulation simplifies backups, copies, disaster recovery plan processes, and migration to new environments, leading to great flexibility of use. Furthermore, VMs are completely independent from the hardware on which they operate.

In a traditional physical environment, the operating system is closely linked to the hardware on which it is installed. The environment is monolithic and requires each server to have a master image with specific drivers to install. In a virtualized environment, however, a virtualization layer always provides the VM with the same virtual hardware graphics card, SCSI card, and so on , so identical VMs can be created no matter what hardware lies beneath.

This makes it easier to proceed with large-scale deployment by reducing the creation of numerous masters dedicated to each type of hardware. Note Many companies host critical applications on aging servers, the renewal of which has been endlessly postponed because of how complex migration would be. With virtualization, these servers can simply be converted to virtual servers—without the need to reinstall operating systems or applications.

Mobility Mobility is one of the major characteristics of virtualized environments. VMs can be moved from one physical server to another in a completely transparent fashion. This reduces service interruptions and simplifies day-to-day management for administrators when performing planned maintenance or migration to new platforms.

Distributing the load to servers that are not as busy is also easy. Instant Pr ovisioning Virtualization revolutionizes traditional server-management methods and server operation. With instant provisioning, a new server can easily be put into service in a few minutes, whereas it takes several weeks in a traditional physical environment.

This completely changes the time frame, allowing companies to adapt very quickly to business-related change and evolution—for example, mergers and acquisitions or implementation of new services or new projects.

Specific needs can be met quickly. This also improves service for users. Gr ouping Resour ces into Cluster s ESXi host servers can be grouped into a single entity called acluster, which allows the environment to be managed as a whole rather than as separate units.

Because material resources are shared within a cluster, advanced functionalities of high availability can be obtained. In times of high activity, the load can also be shared automatically by all servers within the cluster. This simplifies the Page 25 of work of administrators and guarantees service levels for applications. Quality of Ser vice To guarantee that each VM has access to the resources it needs, quality of service QoS can be implemented.

Benefits of Virtualization Server virtualization offers undeniable direct benefits, the main ones being as follows: Cost reduction is a major concern for businesses. Fewer servers within datacenters means lower investments, lower maintenance costs, less floor-space use, and reduced power consumption and cooling costs. Reducing the cost of power use and cooling is fundamental because this can represent up to three times the cost of infrastructure hardware. Also, electricity rates tend to increase each year, making it crucial to limit or even reduce how much power is used.

As shown inFigure 1. Reduction of power usage in datacenters through server virtualization. Gr aph excer pted fr om J onathan Gb. Three factors contributed to this slowdown: The advanced functionalities of vSphere 5 make it very easy to implement high-availability solutions while freeing up administrators from time-consuming clustering solutions. Furthermore, implementing activity recovery plans and backup operations is much easier, which solves issues related to excessively narrow backup windows and the associated time constraints.

Virtualization easily accommodates your growing needs, whether these are business needs, corporate needs related to mergers and acquisitions, or user needs. Flexibility improves reactivity and innovation because the dedicated infrastructure required for any project can be set up simply without a significant financial investment.

The inherent functionalities of virtualization greatly simplify programmed maintenance operations, migration phases, and software updates—all operations that can be extremely resource demanding in a physical environment. This frees up administrators for other tasks and allows users to make use of resources independently, without requiring assistance from IT teams. Automation reduces repetitive tasks that contribute no added value and is key to cost reduction. A direct correlation exists between cost reduction and the automation level of the information system.

Users benefit the most because they consume IT as a service without having to go through IT teams. The ability to apply uniform standards leads to legal conformity and enables efficient processes for day-to-day operations. Yet it would be a mistake to think implementing such an environment will solve all issues at once.

Various phases are required before virtualization reveals its full potential. Page 27 of Figure 1. The first phase revolves around the infrastructure services directly controlled by I T services. Phase 2 focuses on business critical applications, while Phase 3 is concerned with services offered to users. Phase 1: I T Rationalization Replacing energy-hogging old servers with new-generation servers rationalizes the infrastructure. It reduces the power usage and floor-space use of datacenters, some of which have reached the end of their useful life.

Benefits Virtualization has often been introduced in noncritical testing and development environments. This allows developers to work with a multitude of operating systems and application versions as needed. Administrators can test the production environment without calling upon network or storage teams.

IT managers take advantage of this phase to virtualize servers directly under their control such as infrastructure servers ; domain controllers, printing servers, and web servers are easily virtualized. This phase allows teams to become familiar with the new environment.

Thanks toinstant provisioning, these teams can better react to new needs because new servers can be ready in minutes instead of requiring several weeks in a physical environment. Usingsnapshots also makes it easy to update applications because it becomes possible to Page 28 of quickly backtrack if the applications fail.

Challenges Generally, cost savings expected from this technology do not materialize during the rationalization phase. Indeed, new servers, storage bays, and VMware licenses must be purchased, and teams must be trained. This is aninvestment phase. After this introductory phase, some managers conclude that the technology does not lead to cost reductions, which is not surprising.

Real savings will occur during the next phases, when the technology is mastered to perfection and automation is in place. Costs are then reduced—spectacularly so. During the rationalization phase, consolidation is low 5 to 10 VMs per server , so performance problems are rare.

Most problems revolve around storage space. Given how easy it is to provision VMs, a phenomenon known asVM sprawl is observed and should be curbed before it makes the environment unmanageable. To retain control, strict VM management rules must be applied. The following are examples: If the VM has been forgotten, it should be stopped and eventually deleted.

For example, folders can be created to classify VMs. Phase 2: Critical Applications In the second phase, service levels of critical applications are increased and operational efficiency is significantly improved. Virtualization can now be deployed on a large scale within the information system.

The focus shifts. The first phase was about infrastructure; it is now about applications. Benefits Today, aside from a few specific application loads, there is no contraindication to running the most critical applications in a VMware environment. Page 29 of Figure 1. Most traditional critical applications are executed by clients using VMware. In a physical server world, the cloning application process can be a cause of inefficiencies. IT administrators must configure each application tier, including the hardware, OS, and application, which is time consuming and can result in potential configuration errors.

Virtualization simplifies the cloning process for the creation of an optimized golden image for rapid provisioning. Furthermore, an application can also be packaged as a vApp, which includes multiple pre- configured virtual machines containing the different application tiers for example, web, app, and database. This package can be provisioned on demand onto the production as well as test and pre-production infrastructure quickly.

The alternative to this expensive approach is a standardized approach using vSphere technology, without the complexity of other technologies. Some companies have taken advantage of this move toward the virtual to replace their time-consuming clustering solutions with integrated high- availability solutions such as vSphere HA, vSphere FT or App-Aware HA, which is an API that Page 30 of allows users to plug in one of two currently available third-party App-Aware products from Symantec or Neverfail.

Furthermore, thanks to the use of vMotion and Storage vMotion, anticipating service interruptions for planned maintenance operations is no longer necessary.

Service levels are thus improved. Challenges Because it relates to critical applications, this phase is very sensitive. Factors that can affect application deployment. This phase usually requires an approach that can effectively overcome technical hurdles.

The issues relate to performance, backups, and disaster recovery plans DRPs. In this phase, the challenge is to implement adequate target architecture to support the application load. Existing methods must be revised because they are usually not well suited for virtualized environments. Some companies can face strong internal resistance to this change. For this reason, it is crucial to get all IT teams involved in the project early on and support them throughout this transformation. Storage architecture is essential because it hosts VMs.

Because data volume can be very significant, it becomes important to optimize data management. Data-compression, thin-provisioning, and backup de-duplication technologies are well adapted to these environments.

It is essential for administrators to acquire cross-competency skills and obtain training in the new environment. Their roles and tasks must evolve until they have a global vision and a good understanding of the interactions between the various components of the technology and the datacenter. Phase 3: Automation In the third phase, automation leads to cost reduction. By freeing up their time, automation allows administrators to devote more energy to the update and improvement of their information systems.

Automation holds the key to managing growth and meeting the new demands voiced every year. Bringing business needs and computer resources closer, without recourse to IT teams, favors innovation and provides the possibility of getting new projects started without the hindrance of financial issues. Indeed, many projects are abandoned due to a lack of IT budget. This phase also includes the industrialization of processes and the optimization of resources to reach very high levels of consolidation.

This serves to justify the investments made in previous phases. Note An administrator can usually manage 50 physical servers in a physical environment, up to — VMs in a virtual environment, and up to several thousand VMs when automation is implemented.

Because infrastructure problems and application service levels were solved in the first two phases, and given the implementation of process and provisioning automation, it is possible in this phase to focus on user needs.

Using service catalogs, the user is independent and consumes IT resources without relying on extensive IT advice or effort. This is calledIT as a service. Challenges During this third phase, IT teams face challenges of a different nature. Problems used to be related to technical or infrastructure issues—for example, maintaining operational conditions and updating platforms and migrations of all kinds applications, hardware, operating systems, and so on.

Virtualization solutions reduce these problems, but companies must now face organizational and governance issues. Server virtualization has an impact on all hardware and software elements of the datacenter, and governance rules must be put into place to establish who has decision-making power. Automation is very convenient, but a VM is by no means free.

Adopting strict rules and defining a VM management policy is absolutely indispensable. If chargeback is set up, it is necessary to define the criteria it will be based on for example, per consumption or per VM. All aspects of VM lifecycle management are of concern when determining which VMs can be removed and which must be preserved and archived for legal conformity. Towar d Cloud Computing The third and final phase of virtualization is also the one in which we introduce what is commonly called cloud computing.

Cloud computing is a broad subject, one that could fill a book of its own, Page 32 of so we do not go into extensive detail here. Cloud computing is a model for enabling ubiquitous, convenient, on-demand network access to a shared pool of configurable computing resources e. In essence, it is a new way to consume computing resources, the objective being to reduce the complexity of IT infrastructures by offering completely automated computing services.

VMware vSphere 5® Building a Virtual Datacenter

In this model, the information system moves from a cost center to a profit center in which available resources can be re-invoiced via subscription or fee-based services. Users consume computing resources through a gateway offering a catalog of services. What makes this new model viable, both technically and financially, is the appearance of virtualization technologies that allow physical components to be disregarded.

Using available services, projects can be created almost instantaneously, which changes day-to-day work methods. This is an issue for the cloud service provider, who must be able to explain where the data is and whether the regulations in effect conform to the legislation of the country or society buying this type of service. Both the data flow and its ownership must be well documented and validated by all parties, in a clearly understandable manner. When the cloud is created within a corporation, it is called a private cloud.

When the service is offered by an external supplier a service provider , it is called a public cloud. In cases where activity spikes occur and the private cloud does not suffice, additional resources from the public cloud can also be allocated for a defined period of time. This is called a hybrid cloud. A public cloud is a service offered by external providers service providers to final users.

The provider and client concur on minimum required performance or delivery times, called a service- level agreement SLA. The client no longer needs to manage an internal IT infrastructure and can focus on its core business, making this model perfectly suited for small and medium businesses SMBs , for which IT is usually not the core. Operation costs are clearly lower than with internal solutions, and users always have access to the most recent software version.

Furthermore, computing resources become flexible; they adapt to activity fluctuations and their seasonal character. Several models exist, including the following: Users have no control over the underlying infrastructure. They make direct use of applications found in the cloud. Users deploy applications they have created or acquired using programming languages or tools supported by the service provider.

They do not control Page 33 of the underlying infrastructure. SpringSource, Microsoft Azure. Users themselves provision resources such as processor, memory, network, and storage. They keep control of the operating system and applications. Virtualization Ecosystem The following sections provide a quick overview of the virtualization ecosystem and various solutions.

Server Virtualization A distinction must be made between bare-metal virtualization products and those on a host server, called host based. Host-based virtualization applications on a server can be used for testing but never for production.

If host-based versions are put into production, the side effects can be catastrophic, yet these solutions are interesting for test environments.

The best-known products of this type are as follows: These are the only solutions optimized and usable in a production environment. They are installed over the hardware, just like an operating system. The following are the main bare-metal virtualization solutions: VMware leads the virtualization market and is technologically ahead of Microsoft. VMware is now well established in large companies where its domination is quasi-complete.

It has attained great maturity in production environments and is well integrated with the various datacenter elements at the software and hardware levels, which are great advantages. Desktop Virtualization Workstation virtualization allows each user to remotely log on to a virtual machine located in the datacenter.

Remote access can be attained through many hardware solutions—traditional PC, laptop, low-speed terminal, or even a smartphone—without the need to configure anything on the Page 34 of client workstation. The following are the best-known current solutions: These enable several isolated VMs to run on a single PC. With such a solution, the user could use several distinct and completely isolated environments for example, one image for professional use and one for private use that are managed through a centralized management console.

Existing solutions are as follows: The main software tools that focus on virtual environments include the following: This migration is called physical to virtual P2V. The following are the best-known tools for P2V: A number of manufacturers offer solutions that have been very well adapted to such environments. Here are the most popular: Certain solutions allow file-level restoration in the virtual machine and provide de-duplication.

Packaged Cloud Offer ings A few years ago, blade server management was innovated by the regrouping of several servers in the same rack to simplify their integration within the datacenter fewer cables, reduction of floor space use, reduction of power usage, and so on.

Packaged cloud offerings adopt a similar philosophy, but for the entire datacenter, in a solution packaged at the hardware and software levels. The whole is ready to use and integrates provisioning and orchestrating tools.

VMware vSphere 5® Building a Virtual Datacenter(VMware Press ).pdf

The goal is to reduce the lead time before a virtualized environment is available on an industrialized platform. All major IT players now offer products based on this model.

These solutions are widely popular. As soon as a change is made, data is automatically synchronized between the different terminals which also secures the data.

This makes it easier to work collaboratively when several users need to modify the same documents. Note Page 36 of We wrote this book using Dropbox services, which was a simple way for us to share our files. The following are the best-known solutions of this type: These solutions support the radical transformation of computing, using fewer resources and providing greater efficiency.

However, virtualization alone does not solve all the issues IT staffs face, and in fact, virtualization can create some issues if not managed properly. Therefore, when planning a virtualization strategy, it is important to build a VM lifecycle and properly manage the allocations to reduce sprawl. By working from the beginning with all facets of IT, including storage, network, and security groups, your virtualization project will be successful.

Instant news and social networks generate a phenomenal amount of data to manage. It is therefore necessary to lay the bricks to move toward cloud computing services and build the next generation data center in phase with the new challenges.

Page 37 of Chapter 2. VMware Overview VMware was founded in by the following people: In its early years, the company concentrated mainly on the hypervisor offering, but it is now highly focused on cloud- computing services, administrative tools, collaborative tools, and applications.

Figure 2. Page 38 of Figure 2. The VMware product portfolio. The cloud offering comprises the elements shown in Figure 2.

Page 39 of Figure 2. The evolution and the technological leaps that accompanied each new version are worth reviewing here. Page 40 of Figure 2. The evolutionary product development leading to vSphere 5. Fir st Gener ation — ESX1 is the first hypervisor for x86 platforms to offer local storage.

Centralization does not yet exist, and servers are managed one by one. This version is adapted for low-charge machines. The hypervisor is mainly used for testing and developmental environments. There is no direct competition. Available version: VMware ESX1. Administration is centralized using Virtual Center, and several physical servers can be managed.

Virtualization is no longer limited to testing; it is now used for production as well. VMware has more than 20, customers worldwide and completely dominates this market. Competition is weak, although interesting open-source solutions exist, such as KVM and Xen. EMC acquires VMware in Technological leaps: VMware ESX 2. Vir tual Infr astr uctur e 3 — Hypervisors are no longer independent from one another. They form a pool of resources Page 41 of clustered under a unified entity to provide high service levels with high availability and load distribution.

Backups are performed by Framework VCB. VMware is an imperative asset in most large corporations worldwide. Microsoft launches Hyper-V to catch up in this field.

Virtual Infrastructure 3: VMware ESX 3. The year is significant—more VMs are in production than physical servers. Several improvements at the storage level and a solid relationship with the most important software editors and hardware manufacturers make VMware the solution that best meets the most important requirements to deploy critical applications. The licensing strategy is modified. It is based both on processors and on the memory configured in the VMs.

The service console is abandoned for a lighter version of ESXi. Page 42 of Table 2. Feature Comparison: VMware V13, vSphere 4, and vSphere 5 Page 43 of vSphere 5 Licenses The following sections provide some important licensing information you should be familiar with before you adopt the vSphere 5 solution. With these editions, up to three host servers can be managed using two physical processors each and up to a maximum GB vRAM entitlement per host server. A vCenter Server Foundation license is integrated.

It can be transparently Page 44 of upgraded to the more advanced versions of vSphere. Unlike the paid versions, the vSphere hypervisor cannot be managed by vCenter Server. It is exclusively managed with the vSphere Client through a direct connection to the host. This service allows users to virtualize their servers in a few clicks and is a simple way to approach virtualization. Three editions are intended for medium and large accounts: Table 2. It is replaced by the Enterprise version. Customers who use the Advanced version are automatically upgraded to vSphere 5 Enterprise, as long as their maintenance agreement is up-to-date.

Licensing Model As shown inFigure 2.

This amount of memory Page 46 of represents the total configured memory in the VMs that are powered on within a vCenter. Example of a vSphere 5 licensing model. To further explain the model shown in Figure 2.

If there are three dual-processor two sockets physical servers, six vSphere Standard licenses are required. If each VM has 2 GB of configured memory, for example, this translates into an entitlement to 96 VMs functioning within the pool.

Extending the vRAM capacity is easy: Just add more Standard vSphere licenses to the memory pool. Note vRAM calculation is based on average annual use. The theoretical cap GB in this example can be exceeded over defined periods. If the average is below the cap, this has no bearing. Alerts are populated in vCenter, but performance is not hindered, and functionality is not blocked. If the average exceeds the cap, the company must sort out the situation to take advantage of all vSphere capabilities.

For example, one VM with GB of configured memory requires the purchase of only one license. There is no longer any limitation on the number of cores per CPU as there was in vSphere 4 limit of 6 or 12 cores per CPU, depending on the license.

License keys are made up of 25 Page 47 of alphanumeric characters. Three licenses are available: License integrated with vSphere Essentials and Essentials Plus. For small-scale deployments, up to three ESX host servers dual processor. For large-scale deployments with an unlimited number of ESX host servers. Page 48 of Figure 2. I nstallation page for vSphere 5. Here are the key points to remember about this new version: This lighter version requires fewer updates and is less vulnerable.

The technique was previously based on block-change tracking. Under vSphere 5, Storage vMotion uses a new mechanism with a host-level split driver, which simplifies convergence. A new concept is introduced: Using this, a VM can be associated with the storage service option it should use without worrying about its exact location. The image created in this manner can be exploited and preconfigured following a defined policy.

To provision a server, Auto Deploy is based on a preboot execution environment PXE architecture in relation to host profiles. You can use Host Profiles to configure the network, the storage, vSwitches, license keys, and so on. Note Auto Deploy can be associated with Image Builder and Host Profiles to automate the deployment of a customized image onto a large number of servers.

VMware provides a single tool that offers unified commands using the same syntax rules. In cases where a memory swap is necessary, performance degradation is reduced. Some features are essential; these are explored in depth in the chapters that follow.

This migration occurs only after a manual intervention by the administrator. Enhanced vMotion Compatibility EVC ensures the compatibility between processors from different generations of vMotion. High availability and high service levels are ensured by the following: They continue running on other servers within the cluster. Quality of service QoS is provided by the following: When contentions occur at the datastore level, SIOC guarantees a certain bandwidth and latency for critical VMs, whereas Storage DRS distributes the load of datastores by migrating the VMs from one datastore to another.

It provides QoS related to network traffic between VMs. Other forms of QoS to share VM resources are obtained through shares, reservations, and resource pools.

Security is ensured through the following: The vShield Zones firewall is located at the level of vSwitches, using rules that block or allow certain ports or protocols or network traffic.

Effective storage management is achieved through the following: The space is attributed dynamically as the quantity of data in the VM increases. This contributes to the optimization of storage space. Most Windows Server and some Windows guest operating systems are supported. Network management is achieved through the following: A network-related security policy can be implemented and applied to all datacenter servers. Other features include the following: This serves to accelerate the startup of a large number of identical VMs, which is very useful in Virtual Desktop Infrastructure VDI environments because it solves boot storm issues intense activity arising from the simultaneous boot of a large number of VMs.

Software Sold Separately The software products described in the following sections can be obtained separately. Through SRM 5, administrators can perform rollover tests without impacting production. They can also use it for planned migration operations. VMware offers its VMware Converter as a conversion tool. This tool is well suited to convert a small number of machines. For larger-scale migrations, other tools on the market are better suited because they can industrialize the process and offer much richer functionality.

Note Under vSphere 5, VMware Converter is not provided as a plug-in in vCenter, so it must be installed in standalone mode. The value proposition of this suite is to bring visibility to the environment, full automation that frees administrators from manual tasks, and proactive management of incidents.

The tool also ensures compliance by using an approach based on configuration policies, and it helps administrators provision the virtualized infrastructure. The solution provides the following: Page 53 of Figure 2. Note Service providers are the main stakeholders interested in this tool because it enables them to exploit the infrastructure in an optimal fashion.

This in turn allows them to attain very high levels of consolidation and thus generate more cost savings. Four editions of vCenter Operations are available: Standard, Advanced, Enterprise, and Enterprise Plus. The Enterprise Plus version extends the analysis to the physical environment as outlined in Table 2. Chargeback based on the resources used per VM. Data comes from vCenter Server. Automatic discovery of application services, visualization of relationships, and mapping of application dependencies on virtualized computer, storage, and network resources.

It enables application-aware management of infrastructure and operations, helping the administrator to better understand the impact of change. Note vCenter Capacity IQ is a capacity management tool for determining what use is made of the virtual environment.

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This tool is now fully integrated into vCenter Operations Management suite, so it cannot be sold separately anymore.

A provisioning and application-deployment solution for a fully virtualized datacenter. It manages all virtualized components, from machines to virtual networks, using high security levels just like a physical datacenter.

This solution means IT resources are consumed as a service. Encapsulates a group of VMs to manage this group as a single virtual unit, simplifying deployments and day-to-day management. Other software can be used to complement vCenter Operations, including the following: Automates certain tasks to create workflows. Provides provisional capacity to determine the physical resources that will be necessary in the future. The basic components of the architecture are as follows: Provides centralized management for all ESXi servers within the infrastructure, backed by a database server: ESXi 5.

Infrastructure storage space. User interface to the infrastructure. Web interface. This web interface was developed in Adobe Flex to perform basic administration and configuration actions on virtual and ESXi machines.

It allows the virtual environment to be administered from a simple browser without the need to install vSphere Client on Windows-based and Linux-based platforms. Representing a server with its OS, applications, and data. In the following sections, we drill down into the architectural details of the two major components of vSphere 5: Page 57 of Figure 2. Page 58 of Figure 2. The components of vCenter Server 5 are the user access controls, basic services, distributed services, plug-ins, and interfaces.

Recommendation Because vCenter Server is an essential element of VMware architecture, this server requires high service levels. VMs can function without vCenter Server, but some features cannot run without it. The database is installed and configured when vCenter Server is installed. It can be local or remote from vCenter Server. This simplifies management for the administrator, who, although not needing to connect to every instance of vCenter Server, can have a global view of the infrastructure within a single client management console.

It also allows the administrator to define roles only once and apply them to all vCenter instances within the group. This mode can be configured when installing vCenter Server or integrated post-installation. The following data is replicated among the different instances: It also provides failover management when vCenter Server and other services are interrupted.

Failover is triggered when the primary server does not respond. In such a case, the passive server immediately takes on the role of active server. Primary and secondary servers can be made up of two physical servers, two VMs, or one physical server and one VM. The service interruption can be caused by a physical server outage, a network-related problem, the SQL database, or the application itself.

Update Manager can be used to do the following: There are two types of baselines: When the analysis is done, noncompliant machines are tagged for patch updates. Snapshots are stored for a period defined by the administrator. It puts hosts in maintenance mode and performs a hot migration of VMs to other hosts before applying patches.

After the patches are applied, the host comes out of maintenance, and VMs can go back into production mode on the ESX server. Software editors and integrators can develop their own solutions and offer additional value-added products and functionality that complement those provided by VMware.

Plug-In vCenter Ser ver Plug-ins consist of a client and a server. When the server plug-in is installed, it registers to vCenter Server and becomes available for download on the client side through the vSphere Client. With this appliance, the total cost of ownership TCO is reduced because the purchase of a Windows license is not required.

Updates are also made easier thanks to Update Manager. At the administrator level, there is no difference when connecting to the vSphere Client. Linked mode and IPv6 are not supported. It is the virtualization layer that allows several operating systems to run on a single physical machine. Advantages of this version include the following: ESXi 5 Components Figure 2. ESXi 5 components. Page 63 of ESXi 5.

VMM also controls the guaranteed minimum allocations for example, memory, disk upon startup and their isolation. Note Many people assume ESX and VMkernel are based on a Linux distribution because they can use Linux command prompts from the service console in earlier versions. This is false, and VMware has been very clear on this point: VMkernel is a proprietary product development. The service console available on earlier versions, however, was indeed a modified version of Red Hat Enterprise that could, among other things, boot ESX.

Note also that ESXi is sufficient unto itself to boot; it does not need the service console. For security and stability reasons, the service console was removed from the virtual platform in favor of a lighter version of ESXi. Page 64 of Figure 2. Guest OS with virtual hardware. The guest OS is the operating system installed on the VM. Hardware version 8, introduced in vSphere 5, supports the following: With version 7, for instance, 32 virtual processors cannot be used.

Virtual hardware version 8 under vSphere 5. A VM is encapsulated in files that contain all hardware and software states running within the VM. A VM is composed of the files shown inFigure 2. VM files. The following list briefly describes the various files shown inFigure 2. Corresponds to a metadata file. The virtual disk description editable file provides the link to the.

Contains all configuration information and material parameters for the VM, such as memory size, hard drive size, network card information, and MAC address.

It is the first file created when a VM is created. Several log files exist, and they are very useful for diagnosing problems. Created when a VM is suspended. This file contains the entire content of the active memory. Automatically created whenever a VM starts. A VM cannot start if this file cannot be created.

When snapshots are initialized, the following file types are created: Created and used when taking a VM snapshot. At the moment the snapshot is created, the original vmdk file is quiesced and put into read-only mode. No more data will be written into this original file.

For example, Contains snapshot information and metadata, including the name of the associated vmdk and vmsn. A file is created that contains all the information from all snapshots. A vmsn file is created for each snapshot.

Filenames follow numeric increments. For example, Snapshotxxx. Other files: Log files for vMotion. Raw device mapping in virtual compatibility mode. Raw device mapping in physical compatibility mode. A special folder that includes special files. For templates. Tip Editing these files improperly can render the VM useless afterward. It is best to leave these files as they are.

If editing is necessary, making backups beforehand is absolutely essential. VMware adds the following components: VMware Tools must be installed on each OS. Security The following sections discuss important features related to vSphere 5 security. This appliance is automatically integrated into vCenter Server.

All activities between the zones and the outside are monitored, and network frames are filtered based on the implemented policy. Provides firewall protection for traffic between VMs. For each Zones firewall rule, you can specify the source IP, destination IP, source port, destination port, and service.

VShield Zones is a VM-protection virtual firewall that takes the form of an appliance that is also used to analyze network traffic. The vShield Zones firewall is located at the level of vSwitches using rules that block or allow certain ports or protocols or network traffic. Provides network edge security and gateway services to isolate the VMs in a port group, distributed port group, or Cisco Nexus V. An interior vNIC-level firewall that allows you to create access control policies regardless of network topology.

Delivers an introspection-based antivirus solution. It is not used for any other goal. Vir tual Machine Secur ity VMs are isolated from one another. This ensures that several VMs can run simultaneously and securely even if they share physical resources. If a VM crashes or is infected with a virus, other VMs will not be impacted. Networ k Secur ity The network is one of the most sensitive and vulnerable elements in any system.

It must be protected. VMs are isolated from one another when it comes to sharing server resources CPU memory , but they can communicate through the network. An Evolved Solution The VMware solution stack is among the most mature and successful in the industry. Going back Page 70 of to , it has revolutionized the way organizations deploy and manage servers. Beginning with a simple hypervisor, VMware has built a comprehensive stack, going beyond the basic hypervisor.

With the many components that comprise a VM, management tools become paramount, and VMware has led the pack in this field. It virtualizes the entire IT infrastructure such as servers, storage, and networks grouping these heterogeneous resources and transforming the rigid, inflexible infrastructure into a simple and unified manageable set of elements in the virtualized environment. VMware has removed as much of the extraneous code from the hypervisor as possible, reducing the attack surfaces and thus enhancing security.

With so much advanced design, it is easy to see why VMware VSphere continues to have a commanding lead in the market. Page 71 of Chapter 3. It must be able to support the activity of hosted VMs and be upgradeable to meet future needs. Therefore, the best solution must be chosen according to your business constraints, goals, and allocated budget, because costs can vary significantly among the different storage solutions available.

Storage Representation Because vSphere 5 offers a wide variety of storage options, it is important to know what features are offered and to understand the interactions between traditional storage in the physical world and the integration of vSphere into such an environment see Figure 3.

Page 72 of Figure 3. How material objects traditionally manipulated by storage administrators bottom interact with those manipulated by VMware administrators top. Available Storage Architectures VMware supports several storage protocols, which can make it difficult for companies to know which option best suits their needs.

Although this flexibility and freedom can be a good thing, too many options can make decision making difficult or even overwhelming. Although a few years ago, the only viable option for production environments was storage-area network SAN Fibre Channel FC , today the differences between protocols are of less importance, and several criteria must be taken into account.

Figure 3. Local versus centralized storage architectures. The following storage options chosen when creating the datastore inFigure 3. Hard drives are directly connected within the server or as direct-attached storage DAS , which are disk arrays directly attached to the server. Storage is external from the server. The following protocols are supported by ESX: The type of storage must be chosen when creating the datastore. When an ESXi server is isolated and not in a cluster, this storage space can be used for operating system image files provided as ISO files or noncritical test and development VMs.

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Because by definition local storage is usually not shared, placement of critical-production VMs should be avoided because the service levels are too low. Moreover, these types of architectures provide excellent performance, and the addition of the vStorage APIs for Array Integration VAAI relieves the host server from some storage- related tasks by offloading it to a storage array. You can access the iSCSI network by using either a software initiator coupled with a standard network card, or a dedicated hardware host bus adapter HBA.

This protocol has very little overhead because SCSI packets are sent natively. Convergence of two worlds: IP and FC networks.

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